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The Truth About Fermenting Foods

The Truth About Fermentation and Why You Should Do It

Lacto-fermentation of food is a process that is getting a lot of press lately. But the question I get the most from people is:

“What exactly is this fermentation craze about and how does it work?”

I totally understand the confusion.

You might know about fermenting BEER… but CARROTS? Not so much.

Most people did not grow up fermenting food. It is an old practice that fell by the wayside with processed foods.

So, the idea of fermenting food sounds tricky, intimidating and honestly… some of the projects on my kitchen sink can look a little creepy to my uninitiated friends.

But let me tell you the truth about fermentation…

  • It is EASY — so, so EASY!  (Really, truly it is)
  • It is FUN.
  • And it is SAFE. (In fact, it is a very healthy thing to eat)

You can make things like homemade yogurt, kefir, sauerkraut and even kombucha!

And fermentation requires no special equipment!

Sure, you can buy some fun tools and some things require a starter to get the ball rolling, but the truth is that you can do many fermentation projects with just a clean jar, water, veggies and some salt.

So in today’s mini-lesson, I break it down so that you:

  • Understand the basics of fermenting
  • See some of the incredible health benefits (Probiotics!)
  • Learn about the different types of fermenting you can do at home

Let’s get started…

The Truth About Fermentation and Why You Should Do It

What is Fermentation?

Fermentation is one of the oldest forms of preserving food. To do it properly, I think you need to understand just the basics of what is happening inside the jar. (Don’t worry, this is not a full chemistry lesson)

There are two ways to start a fermentation process:

  • Wild /Natural: Where the bacteria, yeast or mold is in the environment or on the food naturally.
  • Starter: Where a bacterium, yeast or mold is introduced to the food

From that, one of two different ferments takes place:

  • Alcohol fermentation: where yeast converts sugars (glucose, fructose or sucrose) into alcohol. (Like wine, beer, hard cider)
  • Acid fermentation: where bacteria converts starch or sugars into either acetic or lactic acid (Like yogurt, fermented veggies)

Now some ferments involve both yeast and bacteria and so you end up with a little mix of lacto, acetic and a tiny bit of alcohol (Like homemade vinegar and kombucha).

So there are a lot of crossovers between bacteria, yeasts and what is produced. But that is basics of what is happening on a cellular level.

The Truth About Fermented Foods and Why We Should Do It.But this is what you need to know:

Although there are many different ways to ferment, ALL the processes involve bacteria and/or yeast coming in contact with some food and converting carbohydrates (sugar and/or starch) into acid and/or alcohol.

The result is a food that is:

  • More nutritious (full of beneficial bacteria)
  • Can be stored for longer periods of time
  • Is easier to digest.

But What Is Lacto-Fermentation?

What you are probably hearing about the most within canning circles is “lacto-fermentation”.

It is just where a common species of bacteria (Lactobacillus) converts sugars into lactic acid. In milk products, it converts lactose, (the sugar in milk), into lactic acid.

Lactic acid is a natural preservative and that is why it falls under the “food preservation” category. It is the type of fermenting that converts cucumbers into pickles and cabbage into sauerkraut.

Lacto-Fermentation is sort of the umbrella under which most people are putting ALL home fermentation.

So when someone says “lacto-fermentation” they generally are talking about anything from fermented veggies, to yogurt, kefir, etc.

BUT just know that many of the ferments we do involve much MORE than just the Lactobacillus bacteria.

Some projects are really a combo of some of the processes I described above. (For example, kombucha uses a combo of yeast and bacteria) And that is why we sometimes talk about yeasts, alcohol or even molds in some projects.

Fermented Foods Are Everywhere:

You are actually already familiar with fermented foods without even realizing it. Of course sauerkraut is fermented…but there are so many other fermented foods you have probably eaten without realizing they were fermented!

Fermented grains are used to make sourdough bread and beer. Fermented meats create salami and pastrami. Fermenting dairy gives you cheese, yogurt and kefir. And don’t forget other fermented foods such as vinegar, soy sauce, wine and those delicious old-fashioned pickles that sit in a jar (unrefrigerated) on the counter.

Heck, even chocolate is fermented!  Seriously – it is!

What Are The Benefits?

Aside from the fun of playing like a mad scientist, there are some benefits to fermented foods.

  • Fermenting food extends its shelf life. Fermented vegetables last months rather than weeks. Yogurt lasts longer than regular milk, etc.
  • The lactic acid that is formed promotes the growth of healthy bacteria in the intestinal track.
  • Fermented foods are incredibly probiotic. Many of the fermented foods in the stores are heat pasteurized, thus killing most of the beneficial microbes. But homemade ferments retain all the good guys in mass quantities so you get maximum benefit in your gut.
  • Since fermentation does not involve heat, more of the nutrition is left in the food. In fact, there is also an increase in B vitamins and many enzymes from the fermentation process.
  • Because the complex foods are broken down into simpler parts, the resulting food is easier to digest.

Water KefirWhat about Safety and Bad Bacteria?

Surprisingly, fermented food is safer than raw food because:

  1. The fermentation process creates lactic acid or alcohol (which both kill and/or suppress bad bacteria).
  2. The conditions needed for the good bacteria to grow (such as a salty brine) are the same conditions that kill or suppress the bad bacteria. The process itself cultivates the good bacteria while discouraging the bad.

The key to being safe with any food project is cleanliness. Always use clean tools and equipment and clean hands. If something smells rancid, “off” or just weird, just throw it out.

As for botulism, it is not an issue with fermented foods. Salty brines are used on vegetables, which prevent botulism from growing and the pH is shifted to high acid during the fermentation process, which again, prevents botulism. So that is not a concern with fermentation projects.

What Kinds Of Things Can You Ferment?

Vegetables: Sauerkraut is the most common but any veggie can be fermented. It involves salt, water and sitting at room temperature. You can buy a starter, but you can also ferment without one. Spices can be added to really make it fun. Fermented veggies are very high in probiotics.

Kimchi: Is sometimes called the Korean version of sauerkraut. It is basically a fermentation of a variety of vegetables – usually including specialty cabbage, some sort of onion and ginger.

Yogurt: Yogurt is made with milk in one of two different ways – with a heated method or a room temperature method. You do need a starter for this one, but it is easy to use. The beneficial bacteria in yogurt will help keep the digestive tract clean and feed the friendly bacteria in a healthy gut.

Milk Kefir: Although it is also made with milk, kefir is very different from yogurt. First of all, it is always made at room temperature and it contains yeasts as well as bacteria. You need a starter (dried or fresh kefir “grains”). Kefir has a larger variety of bacteria in it and some of those bacteria can help colonize the intestinal tract.

Note on “grains”: Don’t let the name fool you. Kefir grains are not made from grain. They are just grain shaped and are white/clear gel-like combos of yeast and bacteria. Kefir grains are used over and over from batch to batch. You should only have to buy them once.

Water Kefir Grains

Water Kefir Grains

Water Kefir: This can be made as an alternative to milk kefir and many people drink it instead of soda. You use water kefir grains to ferment sugar water. Then you can add fruit juice and allow the ferment to create carbonation. You get a fizzy drink that is also good for you. Learn how to make water kefir here.

Kombucha: This is another alternative to soda and is a fermented sweet tea. It is made with a scoby (a gel-like disk of bacteria and yeast) and it does produce a little bit of alcohol in the process. The scoby is used over and over from batch to batch.

Hard Cider, Wine and Beer: As I am sure you know, these are all fermentations where yeast converts sugars to alcohol. It is fun to do, but a big larger in scope than any of the other fermentation projects above.

Homemade Cheese -

Other Fermented Things: You can also ferment sourdough starter for breads or make homemade cheese. You can ferment meats and fish, seeds, nuts and even legumes.

But if you are just starting out, I recommend fermented vegetables, yogurt or kefir. They are the most straightforward and yet, yield great results. Then you can branch off into other fermentation projects.

I will be posting more specific recipes and tips on fermenting going forward. But I wanted you to have an overview before we dive into anything specific.

What Would You Like to Learn to Ferment First?

Leave me a comment below!

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About the Author:

Theresa Loe is the founder of Living Homegrown® and the Canning Academy® and is the Co-Executive Producer & Canning Expert on the national PBS gardening series, Growing A Greener World®. Theresa homesteads on just 1/10th of an acre in Los Angeles with her husband, two teenage boys and several disorderly but totally adorable chickens. Learn more about Living Homegrown here and about the Canning Academy here.


  • Cindy says:

    I think I would like to learn about the process by using radish. I have a ton in my garden right now and we can’t eat them fast enough.

  • connie mcgehee says:

    i would like to learn to make sauerkraut, pickles and veges

  • margie custer says:

    The recipe for water kefir. Thank you much. Love your site.

  • Sally says:

    I’d love to learn about non-heated yogurt – thanks!

  • Susan says:

    Carrots – organic carrots at Costco are very affordable but in 10 or 5 pound bags.

  • Susan says:

    Understand that grains for water based and dairy based kefir are different. What are the health benefits of one vs the other, not considering drawbacks of consuming dairy products? What about culturing almond milk?

    • theresa says:

      These are all excellent questions. I have a post coming that will answer these. Stay tuned!

  • Cheryl says:

    Thank You Theresa . Looking forward to the veggies. I love kombucha , just don’t think I have counter space to do it.

  • Taras says:

    How about salsa and hot sauces? Thanks

  • ColleenF says:

    I would like to try water kefir next. I already make cultured veggies and kombucha. It’s so fun, like science experiments!

  • Kellie says:

    Just starting fermenting about 3 months ago. Haven’t been using salt. Just add it when I’m ready to eat. It sounds like I should be making a brine with water and salt to promote the health bacteria. Correct??

    • theresa says:

      It depends upon what you are fermenting Kellie. Are we talking about fermented veggies? Tell me what you have been fermenting and how you have been doing it.

  • Christy says:

    Yay! I’m looking forward to this. Thanks so much for thinking of all the fermentation newbies. I’d especially love to learn how to make lacto-fermented pickles.

  • Gen says:

    Great topic! I’m interested in fermenting veggies, as well as learning how to make rice vinegar.

  • Mika Lee says:

    Like Gen, I’m also interested in the fermentation of vegetables and making vinegar sounds interesting..

    Mika Lee

  • andrew says:

    Have type 2 diabetes. How does fermentation effect the carb/sugar content? Does it raise or lower it? Or change at all?

  • Karen says:

    Have you tried fermenting grain for your chickens? I saw an article in a magazine that said he did it and they loved it but he didn’t go into detail on how to do it. Any ideas

    • theresa says:

      I have not yet, but it is on my list! We have a local micro brewery nearby and I have fed my chickens some of the fermented grain from that and they loved it!

  • DONNA A. says:

    I would love to have a recipe for fermenting tomatoes. I can most tomatoes into sauces and salsas but I always end up with tomatoes at the end of the season. These don’t all ripen at the same time and there is not enough to go to all the effort of pressure canning. But I don’t want to waste them. Fermenting a few quarts at a time sounds like a grand solution.

  • Dustin says:


    I would love any tips you have on Fermenting sauces, IE Chile Sauce.
    I am new to this and am trying a fw things but I really want to get into making hot sauces and so on..

    Thanks in advance 😀

  • Mary D. Carey says:

    I am salt sensitive. Can I ferment vegetables without salt?

    • theresa says:

      Hi Mary,

      Yes, it is possible to ferment salt free. I am not an expert in doing it however because a salted ferment is more traditional and the way I have always fermented for 2 reasons.

      1) Salt is a really easy way to keep your foods safe. Salt inhibits the bad bacteria.

      2) Salt gives you a really crisp product. When you do a low or no salt ferment, you will have a softer (sometimes mushy) product. But the flavor is still good.

      So if you want to do a recipe that is low or no salt I suggest two things:

      1) Be extremely clean in your process so that you do not introduce any bad bacteria that will give you a moldy or softer product.
      2) Use very, very fresh veggies so that you get the crispest product possible.

      To go salt free, people usually use whey or celery juice/seed or some of a previous brine to start.

      Here is a recipe to get you started:

  • Cindy says:

    Dill Pickles. I’ve tried twice. First time they turned out delicious. Second time inedible..

    • theresa says:

      Sorry to hear that Cindy. There are a lot things that can go wrong and it may not have been you. The most important factor is using the freshest cucumbers you can get. I hope you will try again this coming summer. Don’t let the one bad batch deter you. 🙂

  • KaLia says:


    I am allergic to yeast – can all “fermentable” foods be converted to a non-yeast method? If so, is there a conversion table or something of that nature to use?

    Thank you

    • theresa says:

      Hi KaLia – I’m sorry, but I’m unsure about all foods being able to be converted and I don’t know of any charts you can use. Perhaps another reader will be able to help.

  • John says:

    So the inevitable questions. What’s the formula for the salty brine? What does one do if the fermentation process doesn’t start with salt?

  • Laurie says:

    I would love to learn milk kefir and yogurt. I would love to make like As Lifeway Blueberry Kefir.

  • Dolores Farlow says:

    Do I need a canner to do this?

  • Witoldyna says:

    I grew up in Poland and fermented food was a big part of my childhood. I love sauerkraut and I really like the juice left from fermenting, it’s tasty (my husband does not like it as much ;-)) and healthy! Unfortunately I did not have much luck in making sauerkraut at homeach (we don’t have a basement and I learned that you need a cold place to store your fermenting jars). But I have a lot of success with pickles and cucumbers for the soup! Too bad I can’t find good pickling cucumbers in my state and growing themarket not always work.

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